Examining the Colorado Education Leadership Council
Dan Snowberger holds a master’s degree in educational leadership from Nova Southeastern University. With over 30 years of experience in education, Daniel Snowberger is a superintendent at Durango School District 9-R. He was also appointed to the Colorado Education Leadership Council (CLEC) in 2017 by Governor Hickenlooper.
The Colorado Education Leadership Council was formed in 2017 with the singular goal of mapping the blueprint to revamp the education system in the state of Colorado. They have partnered with a non-profit organization, the Keystone Policy Center, to promote the program through public meetings and media coverage, as well as focusing on the achievements of local students, offering finances for visionary education projects, and helping to implement their developed framework.
The framework of the CELC is based on four main areas that need to be nurtured and addressed in the state. There is a goal for complete literacy for children by the end of the third grade, as well as making stronger educational programs for students from K through fifth grade. The council has also pledged to assist high school students better transition to post-secondary education or the workforce and also pledged to have stronger partnerships with the local community.
Newsletter #4: Recall, Do You Recall?
Newsletter #4: Recall, Do You Recall?
I saw a great meme this evening that encapsulates exactly the way I feel about life right now. What a goddamned shit show we are in, you know? I’m starting to really wonder how this is going to end for us. If you aren’t as well, you clearly aren’t paying attention.
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If you didn’t know: California had an astoundingly stupid 9 months that has finally concluded, and that is the…
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📚 👑🪔Meet ZELDA, the daughter of the University Principal, Gaepora. She has a lot of standards to live up to, and stretches herself thin to maintain her grades, her leadership in her department's student council, and strive for perfection in all aspects. She feels weird about her extremely affluent background, so she funds her education through scholarships instead of her dad's money, and rents a dinky little apartment instead of living in her father's mansion. Her father made her major in political science, so she can follow in his footsteps, but Zelda rediscovers her love for research through joining dig expeditions with Impa and Link. She convinces her dad she can handle 2 majors and adds History to her list! While she envies Link's natural talents at everything, she also marvels at how completely idiotic he can be sometimes. Zelda truly appreciates his levity in treating her like a regular kid and it makes it impossible for her to hate him.
Zelda also enjoys playing the Harp in concert club.
Link/Impa/Beedle/Midna/Groose/Pipit/Ghirahim and Fi
Happy birtdhay, Medgar Evers! (July 2, 1925)
A World War II veteran and civil rights campaigner, Medgar Evers was born in Decatur, Mississippi at the height of Jim Crow. As a child, he was forced to walk 12 miles each day to attend school in the segregated schooling system of Mississippi. After returning home from the war, Evers received a college education and became active in the Civil Rights movement, moving to the Black community of Mound Bayou and becoming president of the Regional Council of Negro Leadership. He was also associated with the NAACP, becoming its first field secretary in Mississippi in 1954. As the Civil Rights movement made gains, such as the Supreme Court-mandated abolition of segregated schooling, Evers faced escalating threats and hostility from white supremacists, culminating in his assassination in 1963 by Klansman Byron De La Beckwith. Evers' murderer was initially let free by a hung all-white jury, but was finally convicted in 1994.
It’s hard to understand why Sansa Stark being the perfect embodiment of patriarchal notions of femininity is a cause for celebration. And that this celebration is often by the same people who want Sansa to be queen or ruler, when her embodying those patriarchal ideals is actually an obstacle to her being a good ruler.
The Stark boys learn more about politics and military leadership than the girls because of the patriarchy. They are afforded an advantage over the women exactly because women are restricted into little boxes as to how they should be. Jon Snow is politically savvy and able to plan Stannis’ campaign with shrewd tactical and strategical advice because he, Robb, Bran etc. were given an education that allows them to do this. LC Jeor Mormont selects Jon Snow to be his steward because Jon got an education in Winterfell. Sansa’s education is limited because she learned from Septa Mordane. Jon Snow is therefore several times more qualified and experienced than Sansa to lead the North.
The only reason Arya has actually learned more than Sansa in this regard is because she defies her mother and the Septa and spends more time with her father and her brothers.
Her father used to say that a lord needed to eat with his men, if he hoped to keep them. “Know the men who follow you,” she heard him tell Robb once, “and let them know you. Don’t ask your men to die for a stranger.” - Arya, AGoT
Arya had loved nothing better than to sit at her father’s table and listen to them talk. She had loved listening to the men on the benches too; to freeriders tough as leather, courtly knights and bold young squires, grizzled old men-at-arms.- Arya, AGoT
Whenever her father had condemned a man to death, he did the deed himself with Ice, his greatsword. “If you would take a man’s life, you owe it to him go look him in the face and hear his last words,” she’d heard him tell Robb and Jon once. - Arya, ACoK
Harwin?” Arya whispered. It was! Under the beard and the tangled hair was the face of Hullen’s son, who used to lead her pony around the yard, ride at quintain with Jon and Robb, and drink too much on feast days. He was thinner, harder somehow, and at Winterfell he had never worn a beard, but it was him—her father’s man. Arya, ASoS
I’m not a lady, Arya wanted to tell her, I’m a wolf. - Arya, ASoS
Notice how a lot of what Arya learns from Ned is her overhearing him teaching Robb and Jon? Arya learns from Ned Stark while Sansa learns from Septa Mordane. Who is therefore better suited to lead the North? Sansa’s adherence to being the perfect lady therefore disadvantages her when compared to her brothers and Arya in a patriarchal world. Arya’s naturally curious, inquisitive, perceptive nature means that she wanders beyond the boundaries allowed to her sex and gains an education that’s denied to her.
One can’t criticize the unfairness of the patriarchal world of Planetos and at the same celebrate that a female character is awesome for rigidly sticking to standards that disadvantage them in all respects.
And no, Sansa does not gain a political education equivalent to what Robb, Jon, Bran and Arya gained in the North, just by virtue of being a hostage/pawn of the Lannisters in KL. She is not privy to the internal workings and political discussions happening there because she is a hostage and as such only sees what she is allowed to see. This is why she gets played by the likes of the Tyrells and LF.
Arya having her own agency, meanwhile, can access information and make her decisions. Such as when she plans her escape from Harrenhal. Arya, as stealthy as a mouse, is actually present in the council chambers when Roose and the Freys discuss war and strategy. In this way, once again, Arya is more exposed to the world of politics than Sansa.
The night she was caught, the Lannister men had been nameless strangers with faces as alike as their nasal helms, but she’d come to know them all. You had to know who was lazy and who was cruel, who was smart and who was stupid. You had to learn that even though the one they called Shitmouth had the foulest tongue she’d ever heard, he’d give you an extra piece of bread if you asked, while jolly old Chiswyck and soft-spoken Raff would just give you the back of their hand. - Arya, ACoK
And as lords and ladies never notice the little grey mice under their feet, Arya heard all sorts of secrets just by keeping her ears open as she went about her duties. Pretty Pia from the buttery was a slut who was working her way through every knight in the castle. The wife of the gaoler was with child, but the real father was either Ser Alyn Stackspear or a singer Lord Lefford made mock of ghosts at table, but always kept a candle burning by his bed. Ser Dunaver’s squire Jodge could not hold his water when he slept. The cooks despised Ser Harys Swyft and spit in all his food. Once she even overheard Maester Tothmure’s serving girl confiding to her brother about some message that said Joffrey was a bastard and not the rightful king at all. “Lord Tywin told him to burn the letter and never speak such filth again,” the girl whispered. - Arya, ACoK
That’s why Arya, Dany, Jon, Bran are all more qualified than Sansa will ever be. They are all able to think outside of the box, they are critical thinkers, they are curious and inquisitive, they go beyond set boundaries, their experiences inform their decisions, they take risks. That’s why Dany is able to hatch dragons and Jon is able to end an 8000 year old feud. That’s why they are leaders while thus far Sansa has been a follower. And yes, Jon and Dany are also charming and witty despite not being ladylike. Being charming and witty and liking songs is not the sole domain of being ladylike.
Sansa being the perfect lady is not something to be praised. It has been a detriment to her character. It restricts her from learning new things and discovering truths. Her story arc is about slowly being able to step beyond those boundaries, realizing that her fairy tale stories and songs idealize the wrong people, that her non-conforming ‘ugly’ little sister is actually awesome, that Brienne is the best knight ever despite not being a handsome man, that her bastard brother is who chopped off Slynt’s head and not some knight from the songs, that appearances aren’t all that it’s made out to be. And to then use these truths to play the game and try and outwit LF by taking risks and breaking the rules. And that’s her narrative arc.
Why do you think Satine (a pacifist who encourages diplomacy) did not try talking to them? @soliloquy-of-nemo
In "The Academy" Satine has wants the kids taught that "It's every citizen's duty to challenge their leaders, to keep them honest, and hold them accountable if they're not."
In "Voyage of Temptation" Satine tells Obi-Wan that "Even extremists can be reasoned with." If she doesn't consider Death Watch extremists, I don't know who would qualify. This suggests she still has hope for a peaceful outcome with them.
In "Duchess of Mandalore" we learn that Death Watch cannot take over Mandalore without the "will of the people" which is part of the many pieces of evidence that Satine's pacifist rule is favoured by the majority of Mandalorians. We also get "They are not powerful enough to destabilize our government. We will resolve this without conflict." and "The Mandalorian government holds no secrets from its people." Does any of this sound like a dictator who refuses to seek a peaceful mediation with her enemies?
I mention that Satine's pacifist rule is favoured because in that episode she also tellingly states that "You would trample our right to self-determination." about a Republic occupation. We don't know if Mandalore is a democracy (I have trouble picturing them at the voting booth, but who knows) but what Satine represents is an attempt to decentralize power (she has a Prime Minister, a Council, does not call herself Mand'alor which seems to be an old-fashioned power grab move of ultimate rule when others do it.) Satine is a strong leader with a clear vision, but she doesn't wish to rule with an iron fist: she wants Mandalore to develop naturally into a people who choose non-violence. This is why we see her care so much about education of the youth, and that those youth be taught that it's morally correct to hold your government accountable and fight corruption everywhere it appears.
In "The Lawless" it's clear Bo Katan and Satine haven't spoken in some time, and we're told "There was a time when we weren't enemies." Are we to assume that even when they were still sisters who spoke, Satine never tried to explain or communicate her ideas to Bo Katan? That they never had debates, never tried to compromise?
And compromise is a tricky word, because to believe that they could have just talked it out, you have to fundamentally fail to understand what Death Watch are fighting for. What compromise do you think they wanted? They believe in 'might makes right.' They believe the strongest should rule Mandalore, and that they should return to the glory days of warfare past. To let ol' Pre tell it:
"We are the Death Watch, descendants of the true warrior faith all Mandalorians once knew. Now my people are living in exile because we will not abandon our heritage. Our people were warriors. Strong. Feared! Now they're ruled by the New Mandalorians who think that being a pacifist is a good thing. They've given away our honor and tradition for peace. Duchess Satine and her corrupt leadership are crushing our souls, destroying our identity. That is our struggle."
Does this sound like a guy who's gonna compromise on some things? Say, "Jeez, Satine, I agree we should stop bombing each other but hey can't we have a little conquest, as a treat?" It's not like Mandalore was wholly demilitarized. Satine has guards. We see armor and weapons. She believes in a person's right to defend themselves. What Vizla wants is for them to be active combatants -- to be "feared" and to reject peace. They are, frankly, fascists, and saying Satine could have found common ground with them suggests that they have a point, and they don't. What they want is fundamentally morally corrupt, and it is a credit to Satine that she continued to strive for peaceful resolutions with them in order to not betray her own ideals, but never gave in to their demands.
Also they're a terrorist group composed of a small minority of the population called Death Watch who are shown to favour assassination, torture, DROID torture (?!), abuse of captives, militarized occupation of civilian populations, bombings, etc., etc. ... I'm pretty sure the writers didn't create them to represent a reasonable opposition, the way they sometimes did with the "heroes on both sides" of the galactic war.
📝List of research institutes established by the Soviet government during the period 1917–1924
A period when a bloody civil war raged in which the domestic reactionary forces received armaments and attempts of restoration through counter-revolutionary military intervention from 17 different bourgeois and imperialist armies. Not to forget mentioning the complete trade blockade (an economic siege through terroristic attrition warfare) imposed by the British Empire on the newfound proletarian and peasant Soviet state power.
📌 October 1917 - The Congress on Technical Defense of the State decided to organize a radium plant.
📌 1918 - the first one was created in Tver.
📌 1918 - The Institute for the Study of the Brain and Mental Activity was established.
📌 1918 - The Department of Industrial and Geographical Study of Russia (Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences) was established.
📌 1918 – The Institute of Applied Mineralogy (VIMS) was established.
📌 1918 – Mining Academy (MISiS) was established.
📌 1918 – The Institute for the Study of Platinum (IONH) was established.
📌 1918 – The Institute of Out-of-School Education was established.
📌 1918 - by the decision of the Supreme Council of National Economy, the State Paper Testing Station (TsINB) was established.
📌 1918 – The Scientific Automobile Laboratory of the Supreme Council of National Economy (NAMI) was established.
📌 1918 - The Central Genetic Laboratory (VASHNIL) was established.
📌 1918 - the Central Chemical Laboratory of the Supreme Council of National Economy was established.
📌 1918 – The Scientific Institute for Fertilizers was established.
📌 1918 - Turkestan Regional Bacteriological Institute was established.
📌 January 1918 - engineer Genrikh Osipovich Graftio, on behalf of Lenin, begins to develop an estimate for the construction of the Volkhov hydroelectric power station.
📌 July 1918 - the decision of the Supreme Council of National Economy to launch the first radium plant.
📌 August 1918 - Lenin instructs Bonch-Bruevich to create the Higher Geodetic Department and the state enterprise «Aerial Photography».
📌 March 1918 - under the leadership of Zhukovsky, a flight and scientific base was created.
📌 May 1918 – Voronezh State University was opened.
📌 May 1918 – The Institute of the Child is established.
📌 July 1918 - the decision of the Supreme Council of National Economy to launch the first radium plant.
📌 August 1918 - Lenin instructs Bonch-Bruevich to create the Higher Geodetic Department and the state enterprise «Aerial Photography».
📌 Autumn 1918 – Commission on Special Artillery Experiments (KOSARTOP) was established.
📌 September 1918 - a decree was signed on the establishment of the physical and technical department of the State X-ray and Radiological Institute.
📌 September 1918 – The Higher Institute of Photography and Photographic Engineering was established.
📌 October 1918 – Lenin's order on the speedy launch of the radium plant.
📌 October 1918 - VSNKh approves the plan to create an aerohydrodynamic scientific center.
📌 December 1918 - Lenin supports the decision of the Council of People's Commissars to create TsAGI - the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute.
📌 December 1918 – The State Optical Institute (GOI) was established.
📌 1919 – The Institute of General and Communal Hygiene was founded.
📌 1919 – The Institute of Applied Chemistry (GIPH) was founded.
📌 1919 – Institute of Prosthetics was founded.
📌 1919 – The Institute of Theoretical Astronomy is founded.
📌 1919 – Institute of Endocrine Pathology Problems was founded.
📌 1919 – State Hydrological Institute (SGI) was founded.
📌 1919 – The Sociobiological Institute was founded.
📌 1919 - The Research Institute of Vaccines and Serums was founded.
📌 1919 – Institute of Endocrine Pathology Problems was founded.
📌 1919 – State Hydrological Institute (SGI) was founded.
📌 1919 – The Sociobiological Institute was founded.
📌 1919 - The Research Institute of Vaccines and Serums was founded.
📌 1919 – Moscow City Bacteriological Institute was founded.
📌 1919 – The Main Computing Institute was founded.
📌 Spring 1919 - Commission for the Development of Heavy Aviation (COMTA).
📌 1920 - the first faculty of air communications in the country was opened at the Railway Institute (Petrograd).
📌 1920 – The Aircraft Technical School and the Higher Aviation Institute were established.
📌 1920 - Kuban State University was opened.
📌 1920 – Biochemical Institute was founded.
📌 1920 - by Lenin's decree, the Institute of Nutrition was established.
📌 1920 – Institute of Medical Radiology is founded.
📌 1920 – Volodymyr Dahl East Ukrainian National University is opened.
📌 1920 - Gribov experimental station of seed production was established.
📌 1920 – Hydrochemical Institute was founded.
📌 1920 – The Astronomical and Geodetic Institute was founded.
📌 March 1920 - the order of the service station on the construction of a radiotelephone station in Moscow on Shabolovka.
📌 March 1920 - the Northern Scientific and Fishing Expedition (Institute for the Study of the North) is created.
📌 April 1920 – The State Far Eastern University is established.
📌 June 1920 - a decision was made to create an aviation technical school and a higher aviation institute.
📌 October 1920 – establishment of the Ural State University.
📌 November 1920 – The Institute of Engineers of the Red Air Fleet is established.
In total, during the years 1918–1920, about 50 research institutes were created.
📌 January 1921 - On the instructions of Lenin, a commission is established to develop a program for the development of «Aeronautics and Aircraft Construction».
📌 March 1921 – Creation of the Floating Marine Research Institute «Plavmornin».
📌 1921 - the All-Union Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering was founded.
📌 1921 - The Institute of Botany was founded.
📌 1921 – The Institute of Physics and Mathematics (MIAN) was founded.
📌 1921 – Omsk Bacteriological Institute was founded.
📌 1921 – The All-Russian Electrotechnical Institute was founded.
📌 1921 – The Institute of Physics and Mathematics was founded.
📌 1921 – The Higher Literary and Artistic Institute was founded.
📌 1921 – Institute of Japhetidological Surveys was founded.
📌 April 1921 – The Institute of Traumatology was founded.
📌 July 1921 – State Tuberculosis Institute was founded.
📌 October 1921 – Belarusian State University was opened.
📌 November 1921 – The State Physical and Technical X-Ray Institute (LPTI) was established.
📌 December 1921 – The State Scientific Center for Social and Forensic Psychiatry (Serbsky Institute) was founded.
📌 December 1921 – the first Soviet radium was obtained.
📌 1922 - by order of Lenin, the Radium Institute was established.
📌 1922 – People in Shabolovka broadcast a concert on the radio for the first time in the world, two months ahead of the British and French, a year ahead of the Germans.
📌 1922 – The Institute of Anthropology was founded.
📌 1922 – Tver State Technical University was founded.
📌 1922 – The Higher Art and Technical Institute (VKHUTEIN) was founded.
📌 1922 - The State Institute for the Protection of Motherhood and Infancy was founded.
📌 April 2, 1922 - the State Institute of Dentistry (GIZ) was opened.
📌 November 1922 – Museum of Anthropology founded.
📌 1923 – The Institute of Occupational Hygiene and Occupational Diseases was founded.
📌 1923 - The Institute of Emergency Care (Sklifosofsky) was founded.
📌 1923 – The Pasteur Institute is founded.
📌 1923 – Microbiological Research Institute was founded.
📌 1923 - The Research Institute of Tuberculosis was founded.
📌 1923 – Ukrainian State Institute of Industrial Chemistry was founded.
📌 1923 – Biological and Geographical Research Institute (ISU) was founded.
📌 1924 - the All-Union State Design Institute «Teploelektroproekt» (Теплоэлектропроект) was founded.
📌 June 1924 – The Far Eastern Regional Research Institute was founded.
📌 July 1924 – The State Institute of Scientific Pedagogy (GIDP) was founded.
📌 1924 – The Chemical Institute was founded.
📌 1924 - The Leningrad Institute for the Study of Occupational Diseases was founded.
📌 1924 - Szeged Institute of Grain Farming is founded.
📌 1924 – The State Research Institute of Organic Chemistry and Technology was founded.
📌 August 1924 – The Institute of Dermatology and Venereology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine was founded.
CLEGHORN, MILDRED IMOCH (1910–1997).
Traditional doll maker, schoolteacher, and Fort Sill Apache tribal leader, Mildred Imoch (En-Ohn or Lay-a-Bet) was born a prisoner of war at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, on December 11, 1910. Her grandfather had followed Geronimo into battle, and her grandparents and parents were imprisoned with the Chiricahua Apache in Florida, Alabama, and at Fort Sill. Her family was one of only seventy-five that chose to remain at Fort Sill instead of relocating to the Mescalero Reservation in New Mexico in 1913.
Mildred Cleghorn attended school in Apache, Oklahoma, at Haskell Institute in Kansas, and at Oklahoma State University, receiving a degree in home economics in 1941. After she finished her formal education, she spent several years as a home extension agent in Kansas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, and then worked for sixteen years as a home economics teacher, first at Fort Sill Indian School at Lawton and then at Riverside Indian School at Anadarko. Later, she taught kindergarten at Apache Public School in Apache. She was married to William G. Cleghorn, whom she had met in Kansas, and their union produced a daughter, Peggy. In 1976 Mildred Cleghorn became chairperson of the Fort Sill Apache Tribe, newly organized as a self-governing entity. Her leadership in that government revolved around preserving traditional history and culture. She retired from the post at age eighty-five in 1995.
Cleghorn's many awards and recognitions included a human relations fellowship at Fisk University in 1955, the Ellis Island Award in 1987, and the Indian of the Year Award in 1989. She also served as an officer in the North American Indian Women's Association, as secretary of the Southwest Oklahoma Intertribal Association, and as treasurer of the American Indian Council of the Reformed Church of America.
Above all, Mildred Cleghorn was a cultural leader. She spent a lifetime creating dolls authentically clothed to represent forty of the tribes she had encountered in her teaching career. Her work was exhibited at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. Her life ended in an automobile accident near Apache on April 15, 1997.
Apprentices & Mentorship
At six moons of age, kits become apprentices of their Clans, beginning to explore the world around them and train to earn their full name and rank, be it as a warrior, healer, or other special rank unique to an apprentice’s respective Clan. An apprentice’s growth and education is a vital matter for any Clan, and all three thus make mentorships and training an important duty for the leadership to manage. However, each of the Clans goes about training their apprentices differently.
The responsibility of mentoring an apprentice is seldom left to just one cat. Apprentices don’t have an individual mentor when they begin their training, instead learning in groups and alternating mentors between lessons. Apprentices undertake generalized education in the early moons of apprenticeship, learning the basics of multiple fields of study, such as hunting, combat, basic first aid, and more. All cats learn differently and are interested in different things, so an apprentice’s training may become more specialized or held more often with particular cats as their apprenticeship progresses. Warriors and shepherds will step forward as volunteers (vetted by the leadership) to participate in mentorship at a general or specialized level; some take to and enjoy such work and mentor regularly, while others only volunteer occasionally. When an apprentice has completed both their general education and more specialized study, they will be tasked with coming up with an exhibition to present to a small council of the Clan’s leader, deputy, healer, gamekeeper, and permanent monarchs in order to earn their full rank. These exhibitions are almost entirely self-directed, with the goal of an apprentice presenting a new skill, idea, tactic, or other piece of knowledge to the council that will be useful to the Clan and overall broaden the knowledge available to MeadowClan – they are commonly referred to as thesis presentations, and oftentimes a cat’s full rank name will relate to their thesis in some way.
Mentorship is both proof of a warrior’s skill, and a testament to their level of responsibility. While it is an honor to be named a mentor, it is seen as a commitment comparable to starting a family of one’s own; WaveClan mentors have just as much of a paw in raising apprentices as a parent, and it is common for mentors and apprentices to form very strong bonds. However, mentors may pick one or two cats close to them who can act as assistant or backup mentors, similar to parents naming godparents for their child. Mentors tailor their training regiment to their apprentice’s needs, with only the basics of hunting, fighting, climbing, fishing, and swimming being requirements – what apprentices choose to devote themselves to mastery at will determine what their training mainly focuses on. Assistant mentors are especially useful during this phase of training, to help cover any topics a main mentor may not specialize in themselves. Even healers may assign assistant mentors to their apprentices to broaden their skills or increase self-sufficiency. Archivists and argonauts operate much the same, though their training is somewhat more communal than other apprenticeships. The importance of balance is never neglected in training, however, and assessments usually involve a sort of triathlon of skill exhibitions meant to test a cat’s endurance in both body and mind.
Mentorship is as much a privilege and a symbol of status within the Clan as it is an important responsibility. Being a mentor is something most warriors aspire to, and warriors who have had multiple apprentices are often esteemed, whereas not having an apprentice even after reaching senior warriorhood might be seen as embarrassing. Mentors primarily focus on teaching their apprentice to navigate and interact with their surroundings first, translating that cultivated spatial awareness into hunting, fishing, combat training, territory assessment, mapmaking, etc. over time, depending on their area of study (warrior, healer, or scribe), and working with their apprentices to develop their own unique flair last. Mentors help their apprentices to find the right “niche” in Clan life for them throughout training. This is reflected in assessments, where mentors will assign relatively simple goals for their apprentices to accomplish. Achieving those goals is not the point of the assessment, however – an apprentice doesn’t necessarily have to succeed at the goal to pass. Instead, they must demonstrate their specialties, their ability to think for themselves, and their individual flair. How they attempt to achieve the goal set for them is more important than if they succeed. Individual skill sets, notable deeds, or aspects of personality are all typical of full rank names, and tend to be specific to a rising apprentice’s experiences.
I think part of the reason Jayce gets so much flack in the fandom is that he’s surrounded by characters in the show who do more with so much less. Ekko is mirrored to Jayce when it comes to their leadership positions. While Jayce cracks down and becomes xenophobic to a degree, Ekko fosters hope and builds a beautiful haven to protect those less fortunate. He’s mirrored against Caitlyn in their quests to root out corruption in piltover, but while he gives ground in an attempt to keep face, Caitlyn continues to fight for change in Piltover’s system despite how it will effect how others see her. His impulsivity is mirrored against vi’s, but while Vi has the resolve to keep pushing forward through any hardship, Jayce falters once he hits a wall or the consequences become real. His genius is mirrored to Jinx’s. Jinx manages to crack hextech with only some of Jayce and Viktor’s notes, no formal education, no help, and severe ptsd. She cracks hextech without any of the resources Jayce had.
And I kinda think this is unfair because a lot of the fandom seems to take Jayce’s worst moments and use them as examples for why they don’t like him and don’t take into consideration his growth. He realized upon his stint taking out Silco’s factory that he isn’t fit to rule the undercity or judge them as a whole when he sees the destruction and death that topside can inflict on them. He realizes that saving face isn’t as important as doing what he believes is right and protecting those he can and he states as much “with respect I don’t give a shit what any of you think of me anymore”. And with this growth, he points out the corruption of the council and their blatant neglect for the undercity and admits to not being fit to lead Zaun. And Jayce did come from a background where he wasn’t expected to change the world like he did. He didn’t grow up in conditions as bad as Powder and he didn’t have nearly as much struggle and suffering pointed his way but he still rose above the expectations placed on him to make himself something more than a hammer maker.
Jayce is by no means my favorite character in the show but I feel like the fandom is harsh on him. I, like many others, also think he’s wishy-washy and not enough of a driving force in his own story to make him the most interesting character in Piltover’s half of the show (I think Mel, Viktor, and Caitlyn are all more compelling characters from Piltover than Jayce). But I still believe that Jayce is a well-written character and gets more flack than he deserves.
A look into the Academy of the Unrivaled Universe
A/N: I have decided to age up the characters for this universe to fit more suggestive themes, their ages will be discussed below. As always, this is a yandere au, and readers are advised to follow warnings
The Academy of the Unrivaled is a private institution where students must be invited by the admissions council to attend. The ages of students range from 17-18 for first years, 18-19 for second years, 19-20 for third years, and 20-21 for fourth years. This Academy is more of a transition for students from high school to college. Students can earn credits towards their desired majors and can explore numerous subjects and career choices without the restriction of finances. While this Academy is mostly made up of prestigious students with shining futures, some troubled students aren’t sure what to do in the future, they are scouted and brought here. For the administration to properly monitor and support their students the best they can, students must live in dorms by the school. There are four buildings for each grade level. Even though this Academy is unique and is made up of a different demographic of students compared to regular schools, after school activities such as clubs and sports are still able to meet and compete with other schools (usually going against colleges depending on the rank of the team) The school year usually starts in March and runs until the middle of December (with breaks in-between so they can visit family).
As for the stars of this story, the yandere’s all decided to attend for the following reasons:
Seokjin was invited after winning multiple reading competitions throughout middle school and high school. Even though he was recommended to take English classes and work towards a teaching major, he has decided to become an author.
Yoongi was invited for his excellence and perfect grades in his math classes. He felt as though he wasn’t being challenged enough in his old school so he decided to accept the invitation and go to the Academy.
Hoseok was scouted because of his leadership skills and his mastery of swimming. He is constantly reminded that he could do better, he has to be the best of the best. So why not continue his way up here?
Namjoon was sought out to help at the daycare in the Academy. He was taking a childhood education class in high school and was scouted while out on a field trip with the kids. Any chance there is to help take care of children, Namjoon will take it.
Jimin was scouted at a volleyball game at his previous school. He wanted a change from his usual life and decided to accept. He also wanted to move on from his previous darling. (He refuses to talk about her)
Taehyung was recommended by his previous science teacher and was promptly sent an invitation. The Academy had more resources and equipment for him to keep diving into astronomy.
Jungkook is a troubled kid who had nowhere else to go. Even though he doesn’t do his work and rarely pays attention in class, whenever he tries, he’s at the top of the class. The Academy sees potential in him and decided to overlook his behavioral issues.
As for Y/N, her hard work and dedication landed her an invitation to attend the Academy she has always wanted to go to. Although she has no plans on what major she would like to explore, she wants to try and take multiple classes to see what catches her interest.
I was raised by a Conspiracy Theorist. In the years since I broke out of my family, I’ve tried to find the right label for my father. Narcissistic Personality Disorder seemed close, but it didn’t include the depths of hatred that my father was capable of. He wasn’t depressed. His paranoia was kind of low grade. None of those labels totally encompass my father.
But after four years of Trump, I’ve decided that Conspiracy Theorist should be considered its own disorder. The irrationality and hatred are what distinguish it from narcissism. My dad speaks in the same word salad that Trump speaks in. He makes crazy jumps of reasoning that only make sense to him. He can’t fathom that there should ever be consequences for his behavior. Anyone who disagrees with him is evil and must be destroyed. He blames entire groups of people for anything/everything. My father has a real talent for hatred. It’s like this floating cloud of hatred that seizes on a group and imbues that group with every evil motive my father can imagine. The target of the hatred changes sometimes, but the hatred is the same. Conspiracy theories, at their heart, are just manufactured reasons to hate and blame a group of people.
What really messes with your head is how normal a Conspiracy Theorist is in the other areas of his life. My dad was a good employee and a helpful neighbor. He came to all our school stuff. He fixed cars and enjoyed woodworking. He hugged us and told us he loved us. We went on family vacations, had family game night, did work projects together, went to church every week. What a great guy.
Except if you disagreed with something that mattered to him. He wasn’t a total control freak. In areas where Dad didn’t have an opinion, I was free to think for myself. Like, I could choose which books to read and which classes to take in school. But there were areas of life in which Dad was king because to cross him was unthinkable. Anything about politics, laws, medicine, education, the entire mental health profession, history, the local city council, science, that guy at work, the economy, religion, vaccines, plastic, that guy at church, clothes, gender roles, and whatever else Dad decided to have an opinion on belonged solely to Dad. We just avoided those topics in our family. Conversation was full of gossip and anecdotes because telling a story was the only thing we could talk about without Dad taking over. I remember the total shock I felt when a friend of mine said she talked politics with her dad. “He listens to you?” I asked in disbelief.
The thing is, we (siblings and Mom) knew there was something wrong with Dad. We rolled our eyes at his rants. Everyone knew not to take him seriously, not to argue, not to set him off. Everyone KNEW he was whacko. But we all worked to shield him from our opinion of him. We said we were protecting him, but really we were protecting ourselves. With a Conspiracy Theorist, there is no genuine love in the family, just approval. If you let Dad live in his fantasy world, he approved of you. That’s the closest my family got to love. The alternative was Dad’s utter hatred of you, and we all knew just how good Dad was at hatred.
You know how Trump immediately turned on anyone who was disloyal to him? The contempt, the anger, the smears? Yeah, my Dad’s like that too. Twelve years ago, I finally told him what I thought of him. My Dad briefly tried to fix me - he told me I was under the influence of Satan and I should repent. I didn’t. You know how Trump treated Romney? I’m my dad’s Mitt Romney. My mom is Mitch McConnell and my siblings are the other suckup Republican leadership - you saw how they treated Romney after he voted to impeach Trump (the first time). My family knows I’m right about Dad, but they hate me for saying it. And because my family has been trained in hatred by a grand master, that’s really saying something.
Those Conspiracy Theorists who rioted in the U.S. Capitol the other day - many of them have families. Trump has a family. Most of those families will be loyal to their Conspiracy Theorist.
I’m writing this because I’m hoping there are some other people who have been able to break away from Conspiracy Theorist parents. It’s traumatic. You can’t do a ‘soft departure’ or ‘agree to disagree.’ It’s all or nothing. If you disagree with a Conspiracy Theorist, he will try to destroy you and the rest of the family either joins him, or lets it happen. Parents shape your worldview, and that shatters completely when you leave. I’ve had to rebuild everything I think and feel from scratch - alone.
Anyway. Just. Yeah. I want a support group for children of Conspiracy Theorists. Reply to this post if you were raised by a Conspiracy Theorist and you’ve rejected that worldview. If there’s enough response, maybe I’ll start a sideblog.
Reblogs are appreciated.
hq boys and their reaction to their s/o confessing
kenma, aone, & bokuto
a/n: i thought it would be interesting to put three characters with opposing reactions in one go (posts are linked together) so here it goes~
warning: suggestive mention of sexual harrassment
you aren't the active type, like, the one that does sports. probably because of your small stature. your short legs are not made for track and field, guaranteed. your arms are too short and your shoulders are weak for competitive swimming. and your hands? the baseball glove slips off when trying to catch the ball. you've tried all those things in your physical education class and best believe you knew you aren't made for sports. minus the fact that you aren't obsessed with it too.
instead, you yielded your strengths in other areas like organizing and leadership. that's pretty much the reason why you're elected as the student council secretary. although you're not the best at communication, unlike the others in your office, you sure have a fair share to offer.
personally, the best part of your job is being in-charge your school's activity clubs like right now you're on your way to the volleyball gym to hand out the guys the schedule for the upcoming school event. you saved your last visit to the volleyball club because you had something extra to deliver.
you prepared handmade protein-based chocolate snacksㅡit has to be muscle-building of course, a hand-crafted volleyball keychain with his initials engraved at the back, and a simple note taped on the box of the chocolate snacks.
and for whom is it for?
the guy that most people cower in fear when facing them. the second year that's over 190cm tall that when you stand next to him it makes you feel like a mouse next to an elephant. the player that best defines Date Tech's iron wallㅡTakanobu Aone.
your memory of him is as clear as the sky. you remember vividly how he saved you from grown men throwing uncomfortable jokes on you that one night you had to go home alone after accomplishing tons of student council tasks. the day you "officially met" him
you can feel the two drunk men tailing you down the empty streets of miyagi. the lights are flickering making the ambiance more chilling than it should be. the base of your fingertips digs harder on the strap of your bag as the roaring chuckles of the strange men increases. the streets feel longer than usual and your feet are starting to get tired from brisk walking. you just want to go home.
and there it goes, the unexpected turn. a deep-echoing voice from a distance called out a name.
as if two drunk men tailing you isn't enough the universe had to add another man behind your tracks. you begin to sprint away from the direction of the voice. you hear the footsteps of the men following you getting louder signaling the decrease of distance between you and them.
a palm reaches your shoulder making you jump. you abruptly turn your body to the source as you rapidly blink your eyes in an effort to adjust your sight to the man standing next to you.
that's not your name.
before you could even protest the man's identity is far more conflicting than him calling you with the wrong name. your eyebrows crease at the sight of Date Tech's famous blocker.
his tensed expression then soothes the moment you uttered his name. he lets go of his hand resting on your shoulder before leading the way. it was a quiet walk. you steal glances from him seeing him repeatedly turn his head back checking if the two drunk men had laid off.
"thank you." your voice surprises him switching his attention to you. your eyes lock. you smile at him briefly before continuing. "but that's not my name, though." you cup your exposed nape with your hand. giggling to yourself at his silly mistake. you had no idea that he doesn't know your name despite visiting the gym a couple of times a week to discuss everything related to club activities. "i'm ____." you smile at him, dimples showing. he smiles back at you catching you off guard for the nth time tonight.
"i saw the moon. that's why." he said.
right. Indeed, that's a clever one. Mizuki means moon.
he walks you home safely making sure you enter the front door of your house before leaving and heading home.
ever since that day whenever the student council members have to work late, you would see aone waiting for you at the gates of your school since the volleyball team ends pretty much the same time you finish your work. you found out that the distance from your place isn't that far from his'.
the earlier days were much more awkward than the recent ones since the prior days the whole walk was only filled with the sound of crickets. but on the latter days, though, you would strike up a conversation with him and although you mostly do the talking he would occasionally nod and mutter short phrases.
slowly and obliviously you find yourself falling for him.
he isn't what most people think. the first impression he usually gets is the complete opposite of who he truly is. even though you have known him only for a couple of months you could tell that his heart is as soft as a sheep's wool.
you approach futukachi first handling the schedule for the inauguration of club activities this upcoming season while hiding your present at your back. you then skip your way to aone who's busy organizing his things in his duffle bag. you tap him on his broad back.
he turns to see you and you immediately push your gifts to him while avoiding his eyes. you felt his hands on your presents making you meet his eyes. you flash him a quick smile before running away from him hoping he would read the note.
later that day, in clear daylight, you see aone waiting by the gates. eyes fixed on the ground. when he senses you coming he swiftly shifts his gaze at you. the jingling sound of metal clicking catches your attention and there you see your handmade volleyball key chain hooked at the zipper of his bag. you fight a smile, biting the sides of your cheeks.
he hands you a familiar sticky note. it's your note. suddenly feeling the rush of your blood in your system as you unfolded the paper. letting your eyes do the deed your mouth silently reads the additional writing at the bottom of the note. you can feel the heat building up in your face trying your best not to squeal out loud.
" Aone-san, i like you~
,, i like you too"
Kenma | Bokuto
thanks for reading!
ahh i definitely enjoyed writing fluff aone~~
Hi Flower, I really love your blog and I have a question burning a hole in my pocket. I was raised in a Calvinist church and was on the youth leadership council and went to church twice a week for years, then I fell out of belief because Calvinism is kind of a bummer (look up TULIP if you’re not familiar 🙄). I figured most Christianity was similarly a huge downer until I met my (Catholic) fiancé. For a few months now I’ve attended mass but I can’t bring myself to join an RCIA program because it seems demeaning tbh I know more about the Bible and Catholic doctrine as compared to other sects than all of the Catholics I know (I went to a Catholic college in the Midwest so that is a lot), and since Catholics practice infant baptism why make it so darn hard for adults? On a similar note, most of the “cradle Catholics” I know don’t take the church seriously at all as compared to my Calvinist roots, so I cannot fathom why the church is so “gatekeepy” for lack of a better term. I don’t say this to be combative at all, I’m just kind of baffled.
My church practiced open communion and was one of the most inviting places I have ever frequented, but it almost seems like Catholics are hostile to adult conversion with how exclusive they are with their sacraments
Thank you for sharing your experience with me.
I can understand why you feel disappointed and a bit let down with RCIA. Believe me when I say I know what you mean about how difficult it is to join. I was raised Catholic and had to go through RCIA because I was technically a convert. It’s extremely “gatekeepy” because they want to instill the seriousness of Catholicism.
I wish all people who were going through Confirmation went through such rigorous schooling, but most parishes want to seem fun to teenagers so their programs are lacking for that age group. And for that reason I stopped going to confirmation classes as a teen. It’s really hard to keep going when no one else is taking it seriously including your instructor.
Baptism is meant as an initiation into Christianity. When you’re baptized, your parents and godparents are taking on the responsibility of your religious education. Some parishes are very strict on who you may ask to be the godparent. But as time goes on, people lose contact with their godparents and fall through the cracks. Many Catholics I know are in that category.
The reason the Eucharist is closed to non-Catholics is because of how incredibly sacred it is to us. That is literally Jesus’ Body and Blood. This is the whole reason we go to Mass and it is an obligation for us to partake in it weekly. If someone doesn’t believe in the Eucharist, why should they participate in our most holy of sacraments?
As for being a downer, I don’t know much about Calvinism but from the little googling I did (which is admittedly, not much) it seems the core principles are based on St. Thomas Aquinas’ teachings and may be quite similar.
One last thing. I truly hope you do not take this the wrong way, but if the only thing stopping you from doing RCIA is that you think you’re more knowledgeable than other Catholics, I would think about that. Yes, I am sure you are very well-informed about Christianity but that doesn’t mean there is more to learn.
-> H i e r a r c h y 🌙
[This list is arranged from highest to lowest position and power]
-> Royalty [Hibous] 👑
King and Queen. Is the main ruler of an independent state, especially one who inherits the position by right of birth. Is considered and forced to be the most powerful and strongest member of the entire clan, as they are idolized as a leader of god-like powers in order to guide the clan to success, fortune and wellness.
King and Queen Consort. Is the spouse of the current ruler of the clan who not only has the obligation to support and advise their spouse but also to orchestrate events, participate in councils or other duties that the same spouse could assign to them to help with royal obligations. Is considered the ruler's pillar to represent order and harmony 'inside the crown'.
King Father or Queen Mother. Is the parent of the current ruler and spouse of the previous one who, either because they're prohibited from inheriting the throne due to not being blue blooded* or because they're retired, they don't occupy the throne and is now in charge of being the second pillar serving as counselors. They are mostly tasked with helping with the lighter responsibilities of royalty and organizing small events such as occasional banquets or parties, but can also be assigned as representatives of a sector (The High Court, Healers or heads of a community).
Great Prince and Princess. They are the siblings of the ruler who maintain their title of prince or princess in case of the death of the ruler to occupy the throne, however, as soon as the ruler has descendants this title differentiates the siblings with the heirs since they can no longer take the throne. They have very little relevance in the monarchy, they are in charge of helping in the simplest or in keeping the reputation stable and the clan entertained and at the same time interested in the crown, apart from that they have a very carefree life.
Prince and Princess. They are the heirs to the throne by being the offsprings of the ruler and they are only responsible for hosting some special events, but it is very rare. They are usually only concerned with receiving the education to properly prepare themselves to be the next kings, but others can also serve as messengers and organizers in the palace if given this permission.
Great Duke and Duchess. It is a royal relative to whom the ruler granted this title as permission to govern a territory in the ruler's name. Currently, they would function as the mayors, but they cannot make reforms, laws or any other type of movement without the consultation and permission of the ruler, so they often keep in touch and this person is only in charge of being the communication bridge between the ruler and the people of a specific territory for better control.
-> Nobility ⚜️
Marques and Marchioness. This title is given to those people with the same commission as a grand duke and duchess, but they are distinguished from these by not being relatives of royalty. Very few members have this title.
Count and Countess. This title is granted to the most qualified people to be the leaders of the military unit of the clan, these being the highest position of all, giving them all the responsibility of the army.
Viscount and Viscountess. This title grants the privilege of controlling citizenship, that is, it is responsible for leading and organizing small groups of soldiers who are responsible for maintaining order in cities and towns (as well as police today).
Baron and Baroness. Usually these titles are given to successful people in different ranks such as entrepreneurs of large companies, military generals and other categories that produce a lot of money and require leadership.
Knight [Nastcha] and lady. It is the lowest title of nobility and is given to soldiers and daughters of barons and baronesses who may later become ladies-in-waiting for a royal member (basically as a high ranking maid, but they were very close to royalty and even allowed to make friends, they were the most trusted people).
-> Healers 🔱
High Priest. Is the most powerful healer in the entire coven. It is usually the oldest healer but in reality everything depends on the latent power in the healer. Thus, there may be young but powerful High Priests . There is only one in the hierarchy.
Council of wise. They are in charge of helping the High Priest to carry out the rituals within the coven. They are also in charge of advising the healers on some ways to increase their spiritual energy. It mostly consists of a group of 7 members.
Supreme visionaries. They are healers who have somehow reached the peak of their powers. Their powers are usually equal to three or four Whisperers but are only surpassed by the power of the High Priest. It consists mostly of a group of 12 members.
Whisperers. They are the healers properly explained. These may or may not belong to a coven. Those who do not belong usually travel selling their potions or simply to learn and improve their magic. They are a group with an unlimited number of members.
||As you can guess, this group is fully dedicated to magic, more focused on defense and regeneration, many of them working as doctors, surgeons and nurses.
This sector is also a middle class, since it stands out from the lower class due to its importance and contribution to the clan, they do not have the same privileges as the upper class either, but they do have special payments and permits||
-> Workers 🪙
The services and industrialization sector are the most exploited in the clan and in this, there is also a small hierarchy in which the position that receives the most money has a higher position in its internal hierarchy.
Here they enter from executives, treasurers and supervisors, to fishermen, blacksmiths and tailors; in addition, small organizations of the same or similar category (for example, craftsmen and carpenters) called Guilds are organized to help each other and negotiate prices so as not to create competition with a large price difference and prevent businesses from closing. In addition, they choose a spokesperson for the community to say their complaints, compliments and requests to the sovereigns.
||Both this sector and the unity of peasants and servants, despite not having the same privileges as those of the upper class, continue to have benefits such as free public health, right to free public education, public bathrooms, gestation of aid, fountains, small climatic oases and more for guarantee a good life||
-> Peasants and servants 🌾
Despite the fact that they do not have a clear difference with the sector of workers, the peasants and servants, being a minority sector in the clan, contribute little relevance, for which they are classified as the penultimate step of the hierarchy since they can also be sons of slaves or persons previously belonging to another rung of the hierarchy who had become seriously indebted (for example, a duke may become a peasant or serf to pay off his debts).
They have the same benefits as the workers but they are more socially rejected.
This sector only consists of 6% of the clan's production, of which only 0.8% of this production is used for foreign trade.
-> Slaves ⛓️
This is already the last rung of this hierarchical pyramid and, despite the fact that they continue to have some benefits such as access to public health, hygiene, clean and always renewed clothes along with some entertainment, they do not receive any salary, they do not receive aid or protection rights by being exposed to physical and verbal abuse. This is because they are not considered equal, not having a life or soul anymore.
This is a completely adult group, since the slaves originate from losing bets in which they put their own lives on the line, eternally chaining them to the person who would now be their master. However, these cannot be sold; if you want to get rid of a slave, it will be by freeing them of their debt or by killing them. Slaves are also considered material assets, so they can be inherited.
||A small advantage is that in the event of a serious illness or injury, they can take medical leave that allows them to rest without working under paid treatment||
*Blue blood: It is the term used to categorize those who were born with royal blood, whether they are the same members, close, second or even distant relatives, since they continue to share the same "blessed" blood type of the royals.
Today the Church remembers St. Ephrem of Edessa, Deacon.
Ora pro nobis.
Ephrem the Syrian (c. AD 306 – 373) was a Syriac Christian deacon and a prolific Syriac-language hymnographer and theologian of the fourth century.
Saint Ephrem is especially beloved in the Syriac Orthodox Church, and counted as a Venerable Father (i.e., a sainted Monk) in the Eastern Orthodox Church. His feast day is celebrated on 28 January and on the Saturday of the Venerable Fathers. He was declared a Doctor of the Church in the Catholic Church in 1920.
Ephrem wrote a wide variety of hymns, poems, and sermons in verse, as well as prose exegesis. These were works of practical theology for the edification of the Church in troubled times. So popular were his works, that, for centuries after his death, Christian authors wrote hundreds of pseudepigraphal works in his name. He has been called the most significant of all of the fathers of the Syriac-speaking church tradition.
Ephrem was born around the year AD 306 in the city of Nisibis (now Nusaybin in Turkey), in the contested border region between Sassanid Assyria and Roman Mesopotamia, then-recently acquired by Rome.
Internal evidence from Ephrem’s hymnody suggests that both his parents were part of the growing Christian community in the city, although later hagiographers wrote that his father was a pagan priest. Numerous languages were spoken in the Nisibis of Ephrem’s day, mostly dialects of Aramaic. The Christian community used the Syriac dialect. The culture included pagan religions, Judaism and early Christian sects.
Jacob, the second bishop of Nisibis, was appointed in 308, and Ephrem grew up under his leadership of the community. Jacob of Nisibis is recorded as a signatory at the First Council of Nicea in 325. Ephrem was baptized as a youth and almost certainly became a son of the covenant, an unusual form of syriac proto-monasticism. Jacob appointed Ephrem as a teacher (Syriac malp̄ānâ, a title that still carries great respect for Syriac Christians). He was ordained as a deacon either at his baptism or later. He began to compose hymns and write biblical commentaries as part of his educational office. In his hymns, he sometimes refers to himself as a “herdsman” (ܥܠܢܐ, ‘allānâ), to his bishop as the “shepherd” (ܪܥܝܐ, rā‘yâ), and to his community as a ‘fold’ (ܕܝܪܐ, dayrâ). Ephrem is popularly credited as the founder of the School of Nisibis, which, in later centuries, was the centre of learning of the Syriac Orthodox Church.
In 337, AD, Emperor Constantine I, who had legalised and promoted the practice of Christianity in the Roman Empire, died. Seizing on this opportunity, Shapur II of Persia began a series of attacks into Roman North Mesopotamia. Nisibis was besieged in 338, 346 and 350. During the first siege, Ephrem credits Bishop Jacob as defending the city with his prayers. In the third siege, of 350, Shapur rerouted the River Mygdonius to undermine the walls of Nisibis. The Nisibenes quickly repaired the walls while the Persian elephant cavalry became bogged down in the wet ground. Ephrem celebrated what he saw as the miraculous salvation of the city in a hymn that portrayed Nisibis as being like Noah’s Ark, floating to safety on the flood.
One important physical link to Ephrem’s lifetime is the baptistery of Nisibis. The inscription tells that it was constructed under Bishop Vologeses in 359. In that year, Shapur attacked again. The cities around Nisibis were destroyed one by one, and their citizens killed or deported. Constantius II was unable to respond; the campaign of Julian in 363 ended with his death in battle. His army elected Jovian as the new emperor, and to rescue his army, he was forced to surrender Nisibis to Persia (also in 363) and to permit the expulsion of the entire Christian population.
Ephrem, with the others, went first to Amida (Diyarbakır), eventually settling in Edessa (modern Şanlıurfa) in 363. Ephrem, in his late fifties, applied himself to ministry in his new church and seems to have continued his work as a teacher, perhaps in the School of Edessa. Edessa had always been at the heart of the Syriac-speaking world, and the city was full of rival philosophies and religions. Ephrem comments that orthodox Nicene Christians were simply called “Palutians” in Edessa, after a former bishop. Arians, Marcionites, Manichees, Bardaisanites and various gnostic sects proclaimed themselves as the true church. In this confusion, Ephrem wrote a great number of hymns defending Nicene orthodoxy. A later Syriac writer, Jacob of Serugh, wrote that Ephrem rehearsed all-female choirs to sing his hymns set to Syriac folk tunes in the forum of Edessa. After a ten-year residency in Edessa, in his sixties, Ephrem succumbed to the plague as he ministered to its victims. The most reliable date for his death is 9 June 373 AD.
Pour out on us, O Lord, that same Spirit by which your deacon Ephrem rejoiced to proclaim in sacred song the mysteries of faith; and so gladden our hearts that we, like him, may be devoted to you alone; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever. Amen.
The idea of kids voting terrifies me. Not because children don't deserve a right to decide their futures, of course they do.
But I know that if I'd been able to vote as a kid, there's exactly one way I would've voted: the way my conservative parents told me to.
I can imagine Quiverfull-like strategies popping up like weeds everywhere in response to kids being able to vote.
I guess the reason this doesn’t bother me is 1) young people are very unlikely to vote even once allowed; just because they ought to have the opportunity doesn’t mean they have the obligation, and while I wish many more 18 year olds would vote (not least because cynically I think it would lead to more of the policies I like getting passed), I don’t think this policy would lead to a massive increase in the electorate; also because 2) only like a fifth of the US is under 18, and it’s even less in many European countries. Ideologies motivated to have lots of kids like conservative Catholics or Quiverful are an even smaller proportion of the population; and while yes kids would probably vote very much like their parents, this is true across multiple axes, not just age! Plenty of present-day voters simply regurgitate their parents’ beliefs, because, well, people get a lot of world view from their parents to begin with. Actually having a dozen kids and raising them is expensive and difficult, and not guaranteed to produce teenagers who will vote how you tell them to.
What I do think letting children vote would do is at least create an opportunity for civic education, because children would be able to participate in the system as they learned about it in school; it wouldn’t be an abstraction. And it would provoke the political system to think about how to frame children’s issues in a way that is actually meaningful to them. Let’s be realistic here; I don’t think any six year old is going to give a shit about politics; my real target audience here is kids in their mid to late teens, but without an arbitrary punishment for, say, the younger teenager or preteen who’s smart and motivated and interested in politics being locked out because of their age. Would a lot of kids be bad voters? Hell yes; but tens of millions of adults are low-information voters who pick who they vote for for stupid as hell reasons. “They would vote badly” is actually a terrible reason to deny someone the vote.
And all the counterarguments I can come up with flounder in the face of all the times I, as a kid, remember adults devaluing me and my peers’ concerns because, well, they didn’t have to give a shit about what we thought! We were just kids. Legally not whole persons, politically not whole persons, our interests not our own to define--when people talk about children’s welfare as a political concern, what they overwhelmingly mean is children’s welfare as interpreted and understood by their parents, or other adults. If those adults are empathetic, kind, thoughtful, and competent, that can come quite close to children’s actual welfare. But lots of adults are callous, cruel, stupid, or incapable, and frankly my sense as a kid of a lot of adults around me having no idea what was really in my interest has only been vindicated in adulthood.
I also think it’s a bit stupid to take a category of people, like sixteen year olds, and go “we can’t let them vote! they have no political awareness!” Again, see “low information voters, millions of;” also, of course they have no political awareness--they have no possibility of political participation! Politics is as theoretical to them as particle physics! They can’t even vote for the school boards whose bureaucracies run a huge chunk of their lives! “Student councils” usually get to decide on, like, the fuckin’ homecoming dance theme, not any real issue of school administration. And there are tons of local government issues that matter a lot to teenagers that they should absolutely get a say in. And often want--but we treat the needs teenagers do often express as though they are cryptic and random utterances, because we have no need to exercise the leadership necessary to translate those needs into actionable policy, because, well, nobody really has to give a shit what a sixteen year old thinks. And I think most adults who scorn the idea of paying attention to what young people think do it because deep down they know that people can usually tell when you don’t actually give a shit about their well-being; and they don’t and don’t want to have to give a shit themselves.
We look back at history and rightly recoil at arguments like, “well, only landowners are educated and responsible enough to vote; besides, they’ll vote for what’s good for the country!”, and “only men are educated and responsible enough to vote; besides, they’ll vote for what’s good for the women, too!” and so on and so forth; all of the paternalistic and anti-democratic justifications for denying full representation to other categories of people also apply to people who happen to be below an arbitrary legal age of majority, so why do we have that limit at all? Let everybody motivated and interested enough to vote, vote. I don’t think it would make the sky fall, or cause a political revolution. I do think it would make the world a little more humane and a little less hypocritical, and I think that’s important.