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shoury01 · 17 days ago
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MANAGING MANAGERS: COGNITIVE BEHAVIORS- A PERSPECTIVE - CHAPTER - 02
MANAGING MANAGERS: COGNITIVE BEHAVIORS- A PERSPECTIVE – CHAPTER – 02
***Continued from Chapter 01 (Covered previously: What does it Entail, What is the difference, the start point, Managing Managers – A/ B/ C/ D/ E/ F/,) Link to Chapter 01: MANAGING MANAGERS: COGNITIVE BEHAVIORS- A PERSPECTIVE – CHAPTER – 01 Use An Apprenticeship Model The best training for someone learning to become a manager is individualized attention from their boss. This should not just…
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shoury01 · 19 days ago
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MANAGING MANAGERS: COGNITIVE BEHAVIORS- A PERSPECTIVE - CHAPTER - 01
MANAGING MANAGERS: COGNITIVE BEHAVIORS- A PERSPECTIVE – CHAPTER – 01
What is the biggest difference between managing managers versus managing individual contributors? Clearly, it is a question top of mind for many of us, all over the world, who find ourselves promoted or hired into a role where we are not just a manager — but a manager of managers. Is this brand of leadership any different? What should a new manager of managers consider in their role? Do we need…
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shoury01 · a month ago
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AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP: ROLE OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY IN LEADERSHIP - CHAPTER 02
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***Continued from Chapter 01 (Covered previously: Components of Authentic leadership, Characteristics Of Authentic Leaders, Significance of Authentic Leadership, Developing Authentic Leadership)
Link to Chapter 01:
https://www.tumblr.com/blog/view/shoury01/692261454559215616?source=share
Transactional vs Authentic Leadership – The Difference
Transactional leadership is also called Managerial Leadership. It works in a structured system where authority and the chain of command are clearly demarcated. The philosophy works on the principle of transaction, i.e., give and take of reward and punishment. The leader uses the carrot and stick transactional leadership approach to get work done from subordinates. If we consider Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Transactional Leaders can be said to address the lower-level needs of security and acceptance.
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Transactional leaders aim to fulfil their subordinates’ needs of security and social belonging that are at the bottom of this pyramid. The higher-level needs of esteem and self-actualization remain unaddressed by such leaders. Transactional Leadership works within a set organizational culture, and does not attempt to change or transform the culture as Transformational Leadership does.
Managers following this transactional leadership model place a lot of value on profits and share value, and keep their eyes fixed on the bottom line. Monetary benefits matter a lot to managers of transactional leadership mentality, to the extent that these drive their actions and their relationships with subordinates. 
Authentic Leadership follows ancient Greek philosophy focusing on developing prudence, temperance, justice and fortitude in a leader. Authentic leadership is based on the leader’s ethical and honest relationships with followers. Trust and openness are the hallmark of such leaders. As the name suggests, authentic leaders are genuine about their relationships and their transactions. Authentic leaders value personal relationships and ethical interactions over monetary authentic leadership benefits and profits. Naturally, workers trust such leaders and are enthusiastic about working for them. Team spirit and individual effectiveness flourish in such an atmosphere.
So, the principles of authentic leadership are basically those of openness, trust, and doing away with pretences and deception. Authentic leadership does not involve play-acting, in which leaders exhibit a different personality in the workplace and a different one in their personal lives. Authentic leaders demonstrate these five qualities:
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The authentic leader’s personal history, including life-events (trigger events), help in leadership formation. The moral development and values of authentic leaders are influenced by these personal histories and trigger events. 
Transactional vs Authentic Leadership
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Unearthing Our Authentic Leadership 
How do we develop as an authentic leader? Discovering our authentic leadership requires us to test ourselves, our values, and our beliefs through real-world experiences. This is not an easy process as we are constantly buffeted by the demands of the external world, the model of success that others hold out for us, and our search to discover our truth. Because there is no map or direct path between where we are now and where we will go on our leadership journey, we need a compass to stay focused on our True North and get back on track when we are pulled off by external forces or are at risk of being derailed.
The compass is a dynamic tool that you can update and calibrate after every experience to ensure that each step we take on our leadership journey is consistent with how we want to lead our life. Because our circumstances, opportunities, and the world around us are always changing, we will never stop calibrating our compass.
When each part of our compass is well developed, we will be pointed toward our True North. The following fundamental questions can help in calibrating ourselves towards our true north:
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Authentic Leadership and Emotional Intelligence 
Self-awareness is the first element of Emotional Intelligence, or EQ, that psychologist Daniel Goleman, author of Emotional Intelligence, uses in describing the leader’s role. While intellectual intelligence, or IQ, has long been thought of as an essential characteristic for managers, EQ may be more important for authentic leaders. Too many leaders believe that by being the smartest person in the room, they can use their intellect to carry the day. As a result, they over-power less forceful voices that may have the vital ideas, insights, and answers they need to succeed.
A)     Finding the Right Role. . . - >
Whether we are in a start-up, a turnaround situation, or a growth opportunity, the better we know ourself, the more likely we are to choose the right role for ourselves.
B)     Increasing Self-Confidence. . . - >
When leaders know themselves well, they become comfortable in their own skin. Adobe CEO Bruce Chizen once felt insecure about working in the technology industry because he was not an engineer. When he recognized his strong business and product-marketing skills and his ability to learn about engineering, a switch flipped in Chizen’s mind. After that, he became increasingly self-confident: “I understood myself well enough to know what I didn’t know, but also knew enough to feel comfortable. That awareness helped me find real self-confidence.”
C)      Being Consistent. . . - >  
By being aware of their actions and intentions, leaders act consistently in different situations and gain the trust of others. Former American Airlines CEO Don Carty reasoned, “You cannot motivate people unless you talk and walk in the same way. How can you expect an employee to be pleasant with a customer if you’re not pleasant with the employee?”
D)     Connecting with Others. . . . - >
Most leaders see the process of gaining self-awareness as crucial to their ability to build strong relationships. Those who are comfortable with themselves tend to be more open and transparent—which includes sharing their vulnerabilities.
E)      Complementary Skills. . . . - >
Leaders who know their strengths and weaknesses can fill their skill gaps with colleagues that complement them. Ned Barnholt, Agilent’s former CEO, said, “You understand your strengths and shortcomings and try to build a strong team around you. I didn’t grow up as an accountant so I surround myself with excellent financial people. That’s a lot better than trying to be somebody you’re not.”
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The advice to “know yourself” is thousands of years old. But knowing ourselves at the deepest level is not easy, as we are complex human beings with many aspects to our character. We are constantly evolving, as we test ourselves in the world, are influenced by it, and adapt to our environment—all in an attempt to find our unique place.
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Content Curated By: Dr Shoury Kuttappa
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shoury01 · a month ago
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AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP: ROLE OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY IN LEADERSHIP - CHAPTER 01
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Authenticity has been explored throughout history, from Greek philosophers to the work of Shakespeare (“To thy own self be true.” –Polonius, Hamlet). Authentic leadership has been explored sporadically as part of modern management science, but found its highest levels of acceptance since Bill George’s 2003 book, Authentic Leadership.
Authentic leaders put legitimacy, ethics and positive psychological capacities first. Authentic leadership emphasizes how a leader can gain legitimacy and build trust through developing honest relationship with followers. Authentic leadership is defined in the following way:
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This approach to leadership focuses on the ethical dimensions of the relationship between follower and leader and describes those behaviors that result in a trusting relationship. Authentic leaders have a positive outlook on life and are truthful and open in their interactions with others. They build trust with their subordinates and generate enthusiasm for project which enables effective individual and team performance. 
Many researchers and practitioners have advocated for organizations to embrace the concept of authentic leadership because it can lead to stronger relationships and a commitment to the vision of the organization. The authentic leadership approach advocates for ethical standards rather than a focus on profit.
Components of Authentic leadership
The research on authentic leadership suggests that there are four major components, which are:-
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An authentic leader shows self-awareness through reflecting on their own strengths, weakness and values. An authentic leader truly knows themselves and values their gifts and recognizes their limitations. When authentic leaders demonstrate relational transparency, they openly share their own thoughts and beliefs yet do not overly display their emotions to followers; they maintain a good balance. 
Moreover, authentic leaders are balanced in their approach because they solicit opinions from subordinates and welcome opposing viewpoints and consider the value of these viewpoints in a fair manner. Authentic leaders also display a strong moral code that they demonstrate in their relationships and decision-making; this ethical foundation resistant to external forces.
A)     Authentic leaders are characterized by a high level of self-awareness…->
Faking ethical constraints is a sign of inauthenticity and authentic leaders need to be both truthful and ethical. Moreover, it is difficult to be self-aware, transparent, and balanced in processing information without the moral maturity associated with a positive personal value system. Authentic leaders show self-awareness through ensuring that their internal values reflect their behaviors and this process of self-regulation enables authentic leaders to withstand external pressure and influence.
B)     Authentic leaders admit mistakes and share their successes…->
It is important to distinguish relational transparency from impression management. Authentic leaders do not engage in impression management strategies yet persist in aligning their core values with their intentions and behaviors within the firm. When a leader displays relational transparency they share both their strengths and weaknesses with others. They display authenticity through admitting when they make mistakes and sharing their successes with their subordinates.
C)      Authentic leadership is connected with sharing feelings and motives…->
In displaying relational transparency, authentic leaders share their feelings and motives. Authentic leaders are connected with their values and morals and share these values openly with others. When authentic leaders show relational transparency, they communicate openly and are real in their relationships with others.
Without sharing sensitive information, authentic leaders are open and honest in a genuine way and choose to share appropriate information. This aspect of authentic leadership demonstrates high self-awareness because authentic leaders understand what drives them to do well and allows them to build strong and authentic relationships with their followers.
D)     Authentic leaders have an internalized moral perspective…->
This internalized moral perspective results in ethical decision-making and behavior. Moreover, authentic leaders balance information before making a decision and they based these decisions on their core set of values.
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Authentic Leadership Programs 
It also appears that organizations can implement authentic leadership programs to enable managers to become more authentic. The concept of authentic leadership is based on a mixture of individual differences and skills so is a multi-dimensional concept. These types of training and development programs can focus on allowing managers to become more self-aware so they are in tune with their values.
An Authentic Leadership Dossier describes the four key components of authentic leadership with a particular focus on development of self-awareness in order for managers to:
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The dossier also suggests that organizations can develop authentic leadership interventions that allow managers to become more self-aware. 
Significance of Authentic Leadership
This type of genuine leadership style promotes open communication within a team and has wide-reaching benefits within a department. Employee morale is increased when team members feel that their concerns can be voiced and addressed. And productivity is increased when team members work together under a strong leader. Authentic leadership also promotes a healthy company culture and in effect creates a positive brand voice in the marketplace.
Characteristics Of Authentic Leaders
In order to be a successful leader and encourage increased employee performance, an authentic leader must possess several characteristics, including:
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Developing Authentic Leadership 
An authentic leader must commit to ongoing development. The following are steps we can take to become a more authentic leader:
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***To be continued in Chapter 02 (Transactional vs Authentic Leadership, Unearthing Our Authentic Leadership, Authentic Leadership and Emotional Intelligence)
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Content Curated By: Dr Shoury Kuttappa
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shoury01 · 2 months ago
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shoury01 · 2 months ago
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THE PATH TO ACCOUNTABILITY: BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED - CHAPTER 02
THE PATH TO ACCOUNTABILITY: BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED – CHAPTER 02
***Continued from Chapter 01 (Covered previously: Meaning & Interpretation Of Accountability, The Blame Game, Its Impact) Link to Chapter 01: The demand for rights has become extremely popular, but when it comes to  dealing with responsibility and accountability, we lag far behind, a gap that accounts for increase in  blaming and rights proclaiming, but very few instances of personal…
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shoury01 · 2 months ago
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shoury01 · 2 months ago
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THE PATH TO ACCOUNTABILITY: BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED - CHAPTER 01
THE PATH TO ACCOUNTABILITY: BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED – CHAPTER 01
Most people view accountability as something that happens to them or is inflicted upon them, choosing to perceive it as a heavy burden to carry. In fact, many people think about accountability as a concept or principle to be applied only when something goes wrong or when someone else is trying to determine cause and pinpoint blame. Often, when things are moving along smoothly and failure has not…
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shoury01 · 2 months ago
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shoury01 · 2 months ago
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THE SCARCITY MINDSET: MEANING AND BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED - (CHAPTER 02)
THE SCARCITY MINDSET: MEANING AND BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED – (CHAPTER 02)
***Continued from Chapter 01 (Covered previously: Meaning, Progressive & Degenerative impact, Loss Aversion, Psychological Roots) Link to Chapter 01: https://shouryoryx.wordpress.com/2022/07/26/the-scarcity-mindset-meaning-and-behaviors-associated-chapter-01/ Forms in which Scarcity Mindset may Manifest A) Believing That Situations Are Permanent: . . . . . . . . . . We think “Well, that’s…
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shoury01 · 2 months ago
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shoury01 · 2 months ago
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THE SCARCITY MINDSET: MEANING AND BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED - (CHAPTER 01)
THE SCARCITY MINDSET: MEANING AND BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED – (CHAPTER 01)
Most of us can remember playing musical chairs as a child. As the music played and we marched around the circumference of the circle of chairs, we anxiously awaited the music to stop so we could fight for that last seated spot. There was something about that one-on-one physical competition and face-to-face conflict fighting for something tangible that added spice to the game. This is often one of…
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shoury01 · 2 months ago
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WORK ETHOS & PRINCIPLES: BEHAVIOURS ASSOCIATED
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A Story: The Work Ethic of Albert Einstein
Einstein's most famous contribution to science, the general theory of relativity, was published in 1915. He won the Nobel Prize in 1921. Yet, rather than assume he was a finished product, Einstein continued to work and contribute to the field for 40 more years. Up until the moment of his death, Albert Einstein continued to squeeze every ounce of greatness out of himself. He never rested on his laurels. He continued to work even through severe physical pain and in the face of death.
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Einstein died of internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. One physician familiar with Einstein’s case wrote, “For a number of years he had suffered from attacks of upper abdominal pain, which usually lasted for 2-3 days and were often accompanied by vomiting. These attacks usually occurred about every 3 or 4 months.” Einstein continued to work despite the pain. He published papers well into the 1950s. Even on the day of his death in 1955, he was working on a speech he was scheduled to give on Israeli television, and he brought the draft of it with him to the hospital. The speech draft was never finished. 
When Ralph Morse (a photographer for LIFE Magazine) walked into Einstein’s office, he snapped a photo of the desk where Albert Einstein had been working just hours before. Nobody knew it yet, but Einstein’s body would be cremated before anyone could capture a final photo of him. As a result, Morse’s photo of Einstein’s desk would soon become the final iconic image of the great scientist's career.
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Everyone has a gift to share with the world, something that both lights you on fire internally and serves the world externally, and this thing–this calling–should be something you pursue until your final breath. Whatever it is for you, our lives were meant to be spent making our contribution to the world, not merely consuming the world that others create. Hours before his death, Einstein’s doctors proposed trying a new and unproven surgery as a final option for extending his life. Einstein simply replied, “I have done my share, it is time to go. I will do it elegantly.” We cannot predict the value our work will provide to the world. That is fine. It is not our job to judge our own work. It is our job to create it, to pour ourselves into it, and to master our craft as best we can. We all have the opportunity to squeeze every ounce of greatness out of ourselves that we can. We all have the chance to do our share. 
How Do Prisoners of War Stay Alive?
Prisoners of war who have managed to survive the most brutal conditions will often claim one of the most important factors in survival is not food or water, but a sense of dignity and self–worth. In other words, the only thing that keeps some men alive in the direst of circumstances is the belief that they are worthy of being alive. Applying this to our daily lives, it makes sense that longevity would be prevalent in cultures where contribution is baked into everyday life.
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For example, let's take a culture where it's common to go to the neighbour’s house and talk each night. During a face–to–face conversation, we have to either contribute or sit silently in the corner like a weirdo. The act of contributing to a conversation, no matter how simple it seems, allows us to derive a small sense of self–worth. Being a meaningful part of a conversation makes us feel like were a worthwhile part of the neighbour’s life. When we add up all of the small contributions to the many conversations over the years, it's easy to see how we can develop a strong sense of self–worth when we live in a culture where contribution is typical.
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Contributing vs. Consuming
We alter the course of other's lives by what we create and contribute. When we speak or write or act, we influence the people around us. When we contribute something to the world, we matter. And thus the act of creating enhances our feelings of self–worth.
That is often lost online as it is becoming increasingly easy to spend our time consuming rather than contributing. Most of the time on those devices and networks is spent consuming what someone else has created rather than contributing our own ideas and work. The result, I believe, is that our sense of self–worth slowly dwindles.
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These contributions don't have to be major endeavours. Cooking a meal instead of buying one. Playing a game instead of watching one. Writing a paragraph instead of reading one. We do not have to create big contributions, but just need to live out small ones each day.
Too often we spend our lives visiting the world instead of shaping it. We can be an adventurer, an inventor, an entrepreneur, an artist. Contributing and creating doesn't just make us feel alive, it keeps us alive.
Elements of A Strong Work Ethic
But when can we describe our work ethic to be good and strong? Some elements that serve as a solid foundation for a strong work ethic are:
Integrity: . . . . . . . . Its greatest impact is seen in our relationships with the people around us, which is why integrity is seen as one of the most important ingredients of Trust. According to Robert Shaw, you can earn a certain level of trust if you are able to achieve results while demonstrating concern for others and acting with integrity the whole time. Hence, the formula:
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Acting with integrity, in this context, also means behaving in a consistent manner. For example, if we are part of a team, our behaviour should be in tune with everyone, in accordance with a clear set of guidelines in working together toward a clear purpose.
Emphasis on Quality of Work: . . . . . . . . If we show dedication and commitment to coming up with very good results in our work, then our work ethic will definitely shine.
While some employees do only the barest minimum, or what is expected of them, there are those who go beyond that. They do more, they perform better, and they definitely go the extra mile to come up with results that surpass expectations. Clearly, these employees are those who belong to the group with a solid work ethic.
Professionalism: . . . . . . . . The word “professionalism” is often perceived as something that is too broad or wide in scope, covering everything from our appearance to how we conduct ourselves in the presence of other people. It is so broad and seemingly all-encompassing that many even go so far as to say that professionalism equates having a solid work ethic.
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Discipline: . . . . . . . .Work ethic is something that emanates from within. We can tell someone to do this and that, be like this and like that, over and over, but if they do not have enough discipline to adhere to the rules and follow through with their performance, then there is no way that they can become the productive employees that the company wants.
Sense of Responsibility: . . . . . . . . The moment we became part of the organization and were assigned tasks and duties, we have a responsibility that we must fulfil. If we have a strong work ethic, we will be concerned with ensuring that we are able to fulfil our duties and responsibilities. We will also feel inclined to do our best if we want to get the best results.
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Sense of Teamwork: . . . . . . . . As an employee, we are part of an organization. We are simply one part of a whole, which means we have to work with other people. If we are unable to do so, this will put our work ethic into question. Work ethic is also continuously shaped by relationships, specifically on how we are able to handle them in achieving goals, whether shared or individual.
Other traits of good work ethics include:
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shoury01 · 2 months ago
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WORK ETHOS & PRINCIPLES: BEHAVIOURS ASSOCIATED
WORK ETHOS & PRINCIPLES: BEHAVIOURS ASSOCIATED
A Story: The Work Ethic of Albert Einstein Einstein’s most famous contribution to science, the general theory of relativity, was published in 1915. He won the Nobel Prize in 1921. Yet, rather than assume he was a finished product, Einstein continued to work and contribute to the field for 40 more years. Up until the moment of his death, Albert Einstein continued to squeeze every ounce of…
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shoury01 · 3 months ago
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MORAL DILEMMAS: INTERTWINED BEHAVIOURS & WAYS TO NAVIGATE -  CHAPTER - 02
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***Continued from Chapter 01 (Covered previously: Meaning of Ethics/ Morals, Traditional Interpretations Of Ethics, Three Broad Types of Ethical Theory, Interpretation of Moral/ Ethical Dilemmas)
Link to Chapter 01:
https://www.tumblr.com/blog/view/shoury01/687639644696870912?source=share
Moral Dilemma Questions
In a time when many question our national moral character, pondering what to do in various situations can be a positive exercise preparing an individual for worst-&-best-case. We will look at some examples of moral dilemma questions to aid in placing ourselves in the midst of them. 01. The Unfaithful Friend
You go out with your spouse for dinner at a new restaurant you have not frequented before. It is in a part of town you rarely visit. You are shocked to see your friend’s spouse having dinner with a very young, attractive person. From the way they are behaving, it is obvious they are more than friends. The couple finish their meal and leave without seeing you. They behave very affectionately on the way out the door.
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02. An Office Theft
You are in charge of the petty cash at the office. However, a co-worker is responsible for making a weekly trip to the bank to make the business deposit and obtain petty cash for the following week. In a conversation with your mutual supervisor, you are asked if the increase in the petty cash amount was enough. You, however, have not seen any additional money. You realize your co-worker has been pocketing the additional money.
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03. Midnight Death
You have worked years to be successful in your father’s business. You felt you were obligated to take over as he worked his whole life to build the business left to him by his father. However, the large businesses in town have seriously cut into profits and for several years you and your family have just managed to scrape by. Your father’s health has declined and he has been hospitalized. He has a substantial life insurance policy that expires at midnight. If he dies before midnight, you will inherit enough money to pursue a career you have always dreamed of and provide adequately for your family.
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04. Get Rich
Your friend offers you an opportunity to make a great deal of money very quickly. He has arranged to set up an off-shore account for your profits. He will not tell you exactly how he is making this money, but you get the impression it is not exactly legal. He only wants an investment of Rs 50,000/- and promises you will have enough from your minimal investment that you will never need to work again.
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05. Telling a Secret
Your friend tells you that they committed a crime. They explain that they are having trouble sleeping at night and feel you are the only one they can trust with their confession. A few days later, you read in the paper that someone has been arrested for your friend’s crime. 
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Moral Dilemma Scenarios
Here are some moral dilemma scenarios. Each scene is characterized by the need to make a difficult decision. As with all moral dilemmas, there is no right or wrong. 01. Sarcastic Friend Your friend has a great sense of humour. However, sometimes his jokes involve making fun of others in inappropriate ways. He will point out a physical flaw or look for something odd or different about a person and make an unkind comment. You feel uncomfortable when your friend does this. Do you say something or just laugh along with him? 02. Hit and Run Late one night you are driving home in a bad rainstorm. A drunk reels out in front of your car and you try to stop, but hit him. Nobody sees you. The guy looks and smells as if he is homeless. You check to see how badly he is hurt and realize he is dead. You have never even had a speeding ticket and are an upright, professional, with a family and are well-known and respected in your community. Do you make a report anonymously, confess your crime, or drive on home and forget about it, knowing no one is going to pursue the death of a homeless drunk? 03. Third Chance Your teenager has had a rough few years. First came an arrest for shoplifting. The item was of little value, so it was only a misdemeanour. Then your teen was with some friends who were smoking pot and driving too fast. Your teen has promised they are turning over a new leaf and seem to be on the right track, doing better in school, coming home by curfew, and generally having a much better attitude. Now you get a call from the local police station saying your son was with a group of kids who broke into a liquor store and stole beer. Do you go to the station and see how you can get your teen out of this jam or let him accept whatever consequences befall him?
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04. Reward a Job Well Done You understand the importance of team work in your job. You share ideas and responsibilities with your team members on a daily basis. In your weekly team meeting with your supervisor, one of your co-workers takes credit for a time and money saving change in operating procedures you devised. Your supervisor erroneously thinks your co-worker came up with the change and your co-worker does not correct the misinterpretation, but allows the boss to not only commend him, but offer a bonus. Do you go to your co-worker and demand he correct the situation, go to your supervisor and explain you should receive the commendation and reward, or keep quiet as you do not believe in ownership of ideas?
Moral Dilemma Questions
Moral dilemma questions might be characterized as “What if?” questions. It can be hard to take a close look at ourselves and ask, “Will I do the right thing when confronted with a difficult choice?” Frequently, it is the small decisions we make that truly define our moral character.
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Approaches For Ethical Decision-Making
The more novel and difficult the ethical choice we face, the more we need to rely on discussion and dialogue with others about the dilemma. There are three broad frameworks to guide ethical decision making:
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While each of the three frameworks is useful for making ethical decisions, none is perfect—otherwise the perfect theory would have driven the other imperfect theories from the field long ago. Knowing the advantages and disadvantages of the frameworks will be helpful in deciding which is most useful in approach the particular situation with which we are presented.
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In many situations, all three frameworks will result in the same—or at least very similar—conclusions about what to do, although they will typically give different reasons for reaching those conclusions. However, because they focus on different ethical features, the conclusions reached through one framework will occasionally differ from the conclusions reached through one (or both) of the others.
The Importance of Studying Moral/ Ethical Dilemmas 
The exploration needs to dig deeper, taking into consideration not only how to make difficult decisions, but how the decisions reflect the underlying values that are important to us. The practice will not only foster better ethical decision-making, but exercises that require assessments of ethical dilemmas can improve reasoning and critical thinking skills—valuable assets in many contexts.
Ethical training develops important “soft skills” like respect, empathy and compassion. Exploring conflicts from different points of view—and striving to understand the value behind an opinion—also makes us more empathetic to others. Identifying the principles that comprise the foundation of our beliefs as well as those that guide others allows us to hone social and emotional competencies like self-awareness and social awareness.
A Framework for Making Moral/ Ethical Decisions
Decisions about right and wrong permeate everyday life. Ethics should concern all levels of life: acting properly as individuals, creating responsible organizations and governments, and making our society as a whole more ethical. One Framework that can be applied in daily instances may be:
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Making moral/ ethical decisions requires sensitivity to the ethical implications of problems and situations.  It also requires practice. Having a framework for ethical decision making is essential for individuals and organizations.
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Content Curated By: Dr Shoury Kuttappa
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shoury01 · 3 months ago
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MORAL DILEMMAS: INTERTWINED BEHAVIOURS & WAYS TO NAVIGATE - CHAPTER - 01
MORAL DILEMMAS: INTERTWINED BEHAVIOURS & WAYS TO NAVIGATE – CHAPTER – 01
Morality is defined as the principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong or good and bad behaviour (Oxford Dictionary). Effective ethics instruction is about more than distributing a list of moral guidelines; it requires educating learners on how to navigate their own moral decision-making. Learners learn to search for and evaluate their assumptions, to excavate the reasons behind…
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shoury01 · 3 months ago
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MORAL DILEMMAS: INTERTWINED BEHAVIOURS & WAYS TO NAVIGATE -  CHAPTER - 01
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Morality is defined as the principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong or good and bad behaviour (Oxford Dictionary). Effective ethics instruction is about more than distributing a list of moral guidelines; it requires educating learners on how to navigate their own moral decision-making. Learners learn to search for and evaluate their assumptions, to excavate the reasons behind those assumptions, to examine without prejudice another’s opinion and to make a thoughtful decision with confidence.
What Is Ethics:
Ethics provides a set of standards for behaviour that helps us decide how we ought to act in a range of situations. In a sense, ethics is all about making choices, and about providing reasons why we should make these choices.
Ethics is sometimes conflated or confused with other ways of making choices, including religion, law or morality. Many religions promote ethical decision-making but do not always address the full range of ethical choices that we face. Religions may also advocate or prohibit certain behaviours which may not be considered the proper domain of ethics. Many people use the terms morality and ethics interchangeably. Others reserve morality for the state of virtue while seeing ethics as a code that enables morality. Another way to think about the relationship between ethics and morality is to see ethics as providing a rational basis for morality, that is, ethics provides good reasons for why something is moral.
Traditional Interpretations Of Ethics:
There are numerous ways to think about right and wrong actions or good and bad character.  The field of ethics is traditionally divided into three areas:
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Three Broad Types of Ethical Theory:
Ethical theories are often broadly divided into three types. Each of these three broad categories contains varieties of approaches to ethics, some of which share characteristics across the categories.
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Consequentialist Theories
The Utilitarian Approach: Utilitarianism is one of the most common approaches to making ethical decisions, especially decisions with consequences that concern large groups of people, in part because it instructs us to weigh the different amounts of good and bad that will be produced by our action. This conforms to our feeling that some good and some bad will necessarily be the result of our action and that the best action will be that which provides the most good or does the least harm, or produces the greatest balance of good over harm.
The Egoistic Approach: One variation of the utilitarian approach is known as ethical egoism, or the ethics of self- interest. In this approach, an individual often uses utilitarian calculation to produce the greatest amount of good for him or herself. The Russian-American philosopher Ayn Rand (1905-1982), who, in the book The Virtue of Selfishness (1964), argues that self-interest is a prerequisite to self-respect and to respect for others.
The Common Good Approach: The French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) argued that the best society should be guided by the general will of the people which would then produce what is best for the people as a whole. This approach to ethics underscores the networked aspects of society and emphasizes respect and compassion for others, especially those who are more vulnerable.
Non Consequentialist Theories
The Duty-Based Approach: The ethical action is one taken from duty, that is, it is done precisely because it is our obligation to perform the action. Ethical obligations are the same for all rational creatures (they are universal), and knowledge of what these obligations entail is arrived at by discovering rules of behaviour that are not contradicted by reason.
The Rights Approach: This approach stipulates that the best ethical action is that which protects the ethical rights of those who are affected by the action. It emphasizes the belief that all humans have a right to dignity. The list of ethical rights is debated; many now argue that animals and other non-humans such as robots also have rights.
The Fairness or Justice Approach: The American philosopher John Rawls argued that just ethical principles are those that would be chosen by free and rational people in an initial situation of equality. This is considered fair or just because it provides a procedure for what counts as a fair action, and does not concern itself with the consequences of those actions. Fairness of starting point is the principle for what is considered just.
The Divine Command Approach: As its name suggests, this approach sees what is right as the same as what the Devine Beings command, and ethical standards are the creation of their will. Because Devine Beings are seen as omnipotent and possessed of free will, they could change what is now considered ethical, and they are not bound by any standard of right or wrong short of logical contradiction.
Agent Centred Theories
The Virtue Approach: One long-standing ethical principle argues that ethical actions should be consistent with ideal human virtues. Because virtue ethics is concerned with the entirety of a person’s life, it takes the process of education and training seriously, and emphasizes the importance of role models to our understanding of how to engage in ethical deliberation.
The Feminist Approach: This approach emphasizes the importance of the experiences of women and other marginalized groups to ethical deliberation. The principle of care as a legitimately primary ethical concern, often in opposition to the seemingly cold and impersonal justice approach. Like virtue ethics, feminist ethics concerned with the totality of human life and how this life comes to influence the way we make ethical decisions.
Interpretation of Moral/ Ethical Dilemmas
In philosophy, ethical dilemmas, also called ethical paradoxes or moral dilemmas, are situations in which an agent stands under two (or more) conflicting moral requirements, none of which overrides the other. A closely related definition characterizes ethical dilemmas as situations in which every available choice is wrong. The term is also used in a wider sense in everyday language to refer to ethical conflicts that may be resolvable, to psychologically difficult choices or to other types of difficult ethical problems.
The crucial features of a moral dilemma are these: the agent can do each of the actions; but the agent cannot do both (or all) of the actions. What is common to the cases in a moral dilemma (or ethical dilemma) is conflict. The agent thus seems condemned to moral failure; no matter what he/she does, he/she will do something wrong (or fail to do something that he/she ought to do).
When one of the conflicting requirements overrides the other, we have a conflict but not a genuine moral dilemma. So, in order to have a genuine moral dilemma it must also be true that neither of the conflicting requirements is overridden. What makes these questions dilemmas is an individual’s definition of right and wrong or good and bad. scenarios.
Some ways in which such ethical dilemmas may be addressed are:
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***To be continued in Chapter 02 (Moral Dilemma Questions & Common Situations, Approaches For Ethical Decision-Making, Importance of Understanding Moral Dilemmas, Framework for Making Moral/ Ethical Decisions)
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Content Curated By: Dr Shoury Kuttappa
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